• Enhances nutrient digestion and absorption
    • Halts growth of pathogenic microbes and moulds
    • Improves feed intake
    • Reduces damages to Liver and G I Tract membrane
    • Simulates Immune System
    • Starts functioning when once comes into contact with the feeding stuff                  
    • And continues to perform in the G I tract and at the Hepatic Level.


Fungi (Myces) are plant-similar micro organisms, some of them are large sized (as mushrooms) and the others are microscopic, therefore they are poly-or-mono-cellular.  Some of the fungi are useful for man, since they could be eaten or used in producing drugs, dairy products, bread…. etc., and used in fungal biocontrol.   Yet, the others are harmful for man, animals and plants, since they cause diseases (mycoses) and / or intoxications (mycotoxicoses).  Therefore, fungi are responsible for crops damage (25% of the yearly production), whether in the field, during transportation, and / or during storage.  Toxic fungi can also invade various feed - and foodstuffs and hence affect agricultural animals (Abdelhamid and Saleh, 1996) and humans (Abdelhamid et al., 1999).  Moreover, these toxigenic fungi occur also in and / or on moist houses, libraries, air conditioners, feed mills, dust, air, insects, temples, banknotes, and computer disks and compact disks (Abdelhamid, 1998, 1999-b, and 2000-b).


It is a fungal toxin, i.e. it is a secondary toxic - metabolite which produced from a toxigenic fungus.  Any mycotoxin could be produced from many fungal species, and any fungal strain can produce many mycotoxins.  Therefore, any moldy sample may contain numerous fungal genera and species (multi-infection), hence and consequently it may be contaminated with different mycotoxins.  
For instance, zearalenone (F-2) is produced by Fusarium roseum, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, and F. moniliforme.  Also, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) producing fungi are F. equiseti, F. sambucinum, F. tricinctum, F. scirpi, F. solani, F. rigidiusculum, F. culmorum and F. avenaceum.   On the other hand, A. ochracious produces aflatoxins, ochratoxins, penicillic acid, cycalonic acid, viomllin….. etc., and A. flavus produces, aflatrime, aflatoxins, aspergillic acid, aspertoxin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, penetrimes, rubratoxins, sterigmatocystin, tremorgns  etc.   So, when one mycotoxin is detected, man should suspect that others are also present in a contaminated feed (Abdelhamid, 2000-b). However, the story of mycotoxins is very new comparing with the old known story of fungi.  It began with the detection of ergot, trichothecines, aflatoxins…. and recently fumonisins. Nowadays, more than one thousand different chemically identified mycotoxins are isolated.  They are of low molecular weights. Some of them acts with each other synergistically as fumonisin-B1 and aflatoxin-B1, ochratoxin-A and aflatoxin, T2 toxin and aflatoxin. Mycotoxins cause a wide variety of adverse clinical signs depending on the nature and concentration of mycotoxins present, duration ofexposure, the animal species, its age and nutritional and health status at the time of exposure to contaminated feed (Horvath, 1998).


They are peptide derivatives (Cyclochoritme, Ergot, Gliotoxin, Sporidismine), quinone derivatives (Lotuskirin, Rogulosin), peron derivatives (Aflatoxin, Citrinin, Kojic acid, Sterigmatocystin), terpine derivatives (Fusarinone, Satratoxin, Trichothecines, Vomitoxin), nonadrid (Rubratoxin), alkaloid (Lesergic acid, Slaframin), xanthine (Sterigmatocystin), lacton (Patulin, Penicillic acid, Rubratoxin, Zearalenone), botnolid (Patulin), phynol (Zearalenone), glucose (Kojic acid), qumarin (Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, Sterigmatocystin) as citd by Abdelhamid (2000-b).


Aflatoxin B1 from A. flavous

Increases Embryonic Mortality.             Decreases feed efficiency. 
Decreases hatchability.                Poor Growth. 
Reduced RBC.                     Anemia.
Impaired Blood Clotting.                 Damage to Liver
Causes Liver Tumors                Decreased Immune responsiveness
Increased Mortality    Causes Necrosis, basophilia of hepatocytes
Enlarges blood sinusoids in the kidney        Necrosis of gastric glands
Causes liver cancer, hepatoma.            Reduces Survival Rate 
Elevates internal organs indices            Causes chromosomal aberrations 
Lowers mitotic index of gill cells.            Reduces muscles area

Causes accumulation of iron in intestinal mucosa epithelium
cellulartoxic – free-radical and active oxygen producing
Damages the tissues of gills, intestine, liver, subcutaneous tissue and muscle, spleen, kidneys, and brain.

Aflatoxin G1 and G2
Affects circulatory system            regurgitation of stomach contents

Aspergillic acid 
Citrinin from P.Citrinum
Carcinogenic                nephrotoxic
Damages Kidney and liver        heapatotoxic

Affects circulatory system

Cyclopiazonic acid
Affects circulatory system            necrosis of gastric glands
Neuro toxin.                Suppresses Growth

causes accumulations of proteinaceous granules in renal tubular epithelium

Affects circulatory system

Decreases production            Induces Liver toxicity
Leads to Death                Carcinogenic

chromatide plaster
Ferrocarin E

Causes Imbalances in reproduction system    Results in poorer egg shell quality
Neurotoxic                Hepatotoxic
Nephrotoxic                Depresses Growth
Lowered Hematocrit            increased liver glycogen

increased vacuolation in nerve fibers    Reduces red and white blood cell counts Perivascular lymphohistiocytic investment in the brain

Immunotoxic                Respirotoxic

Affects digestive system

Ochratoxin A from A. ochracius
Decreases body weight            Causes deformities of the head, tail and eyes.
Reduces feed Intake            Necrosis of Liver, Kidney
inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis    Nephrotoxic

Increased incidence and severity of melanomacrophage centers in hepatopancreatic tissue and posterior kidney        
Reduction of number of Exocrine pancreatic cells

Affects digestive system
Carcinogenic                hepatotoxic
digestive system toxins            Reduces Survival Rate
decreases growth rate as well as muscular protein content

T-2 Toxin
Leads to oral lesions, Gizzard lesions    Decreases chick weight
Causes dermatitis                Decreases Hatchability
estrogenic, sexual disorders        Affects circulatory system
Damages the intestinal tracts        Causes severe oedema
Causes fluid accumulation in the body cavity and behind the eyes.
loss of the intestinal mucosa        Reduced Growth Rate

poor F C R                     
Carcinogenic                dermal toxic 
Immunotoxic                Neurotoxic
Lessens  feed intake            Decreases Growth rate
Results in Fatty Liver            Genotoxic

A Survey for microorganisms associated with the aquatic and terrestrial animals revealed that more than 20 fungal isolates belonging to different genera and species including Saprolegnia, Trichoderma, Alternaria spp., Penicillium, Fusarium sp., Fusarium semitectum (= F. incarnatum), Cladosporium, Phoma, Nigrospora, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were isolated from naturally diseased animals

The most widely found in nature and grow and produce toxins under the proper conditions are fungal genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium.  The latest genus requires high moisture content, so outspreads in fields and attacks vegetative substances and known as “field fungi”.  Whereas, both former genera require low humidity, so are outspreading in store houses and known as “storage fungi”.  However, moisture content greater than 14% and relative humidity greater than 70% are required for fungal growth and toxin production.  Fungal invasion negatively affects physical (texture, color, odor, flavor) and chemical (mineralization) properties as well as feeding value of the infected feed (Abdelhamid, 1993b; 1995b&c; 1999a; 2000a and 2001 and Abdelhamid et al., 1985). 
So, it is economically important to avoid buying damaged (mechanically or moldy) feed stuffs, maintain good conditions in store houses and do not store finished feeds for long periods (Abdelhamid, 1985; 1989 & 1990 and Noonpugdee et al., 1986). 
Toxigenic fungi and their toxins are found often in various feeds of plant and animal origins including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Mucor, and Pencillium . 
The following Table illustrates some feeding stuff  and their mycotoxins content (Abdelhamid, 1980, 1983a - e, 1985, 1990, 2000b & 2005 and Abdelhamid et al., 1996): 

Feeds                Mycotoxins
Bone meal            Vomitoxin and Zearalenone
Cottonseed , Rice bran        Aflatoxin-B1, Citrinin, Ochratoxin-A, Vomitoxin, and Zearalenone
Grains                Aflatoxin-B1 & G1, Citrinin and Ochratoxin-A
Maize            Aflatoxin-B1, Fumonisins, Ochratoxin-A and Vomitoxin
Maize flour, beans        Aflatoxins, Cyclopiazonic acid, Patulin and Griseofulvin
Maize, pea/Groundnut meal,    Aflatoxins, Cyclopiazonic acid, Ochratoxin-A, and Zearlenone
sunflower meal, sorghum, wheat     Aflatoxins, Cyclopiazonic acid, Ochratoxin-A and Zearlenone
Maize, Peanut oil        Aflatoxin-B1
Milk products            Aflatoxins-B1, B2. M1 and Patulin
Rice bran    Aflatoxin-B1, Ochratoxin-A, Citrinin, Vomitoxin, Cyclopiazonic acid and Moniliformine

A. flavus producing for aflatoxins was found in dried Jawla, Prawn Head and Shell .  Also, A. ochracious, A. flavus, A. tamari and A. niger were found in smoked fish, so smoked fish contain aflatoxins and ochratoxin-A.  
Fish meal contained aflatoxin-B1 and ochratoxin-A; hence, sea foods were contaminated with aflatoxin-B1 residues, therefore caused human mycotoxic food poisoning.   However, feedstuff samples were tested for the presence of some mycotoxins and found to be contaminated, particularly with vomitoxin, aflatoxin, citrinin, zearalenone and ochratoxin, in descending order concerning the percentage of rejected (highly contaminated than the tolerable level) samples.  Feeds were heavily contaminated with aflatoxin up to 3388 ppb (Abdlhamid et al., 1997). However, co-occurrence of cyclopiazonic acid  was found in the aflatoxin-contaminating feed samples (Balachandran and Parthasarathy, 1996). Generally, mold toxins are more toxic to the juveniles of any species (Lim and Webster, 2001).

Each fungus requires special conditions (substrate, moisture, temperature….) for its growth and other conditions for its toxin(s) production which are different than those of the other fungi and toxins.  However, the main affecting factors on toxin production are genetic factors (related to the fungus, its strain and its genetic capability) and environmental factors  including:

    1. The substrate (on which the fungus will grow) and its nutritious content.
    2. Water content {water activity (aw)} of the substrate and ambient relative humidity.
    3. Ambient temperature (dry growing season).
    4. Ambient oxygen content (is required for fungal growth).
    5. Ambient carbon dioxide (not required for fungal growth).
    6. Mechanical damage (enable fungal invasion and mycotoxin production).
    7. Insects invasion (enable fungal invasion and mycotoxin production).
    8. Increased count of fungal spores accumulates the produced mycotoxin.
    9. The growth of non-toxic fungal strains inhibits the production from the toxigenic fungi.
    10. Presence of specific biota inhibit growth of fungi and mycotoxin production.
    11. Time of fungal growth (after the plateau , the capability of producing toxins decreases).
    12. Cultivation operations [plants density/area unit (micro clime), agricultural rotation,                      
    13. fertilization, wet harvest, mechanization, storage period….. etc.].
    14. Low layer thickness of a crop (< 50 cm) during drying strongly decreases  mycotoxin production  (Abdelhamid, 2000-b). 

The method of mycotoxin analysis depends mainly on the mycotoxin it self (or its metabolites) and the contaminated tissue or substance will be tested.  Therefore, there are many detection methods for each mycotoxin, and there are screening methods for detecting more than one mycotoxin simultaneously in the same sample.  However, each method has specific accuracy, sensitivity, recovery and reproducibility within a specific range of the mycotoxin levels (Abdelhamid, 1981, 1995a and 1996).  
The principles of analysis consist of precise sampling, sample preparation and toxin extraction,  purification, derivation, elution, concentration, qualitative detection, confirmation, and quantitative detection. 
Methods of mycotoxins examination include 
biological methods (e.g. cells, tissues, eggs, shrimp, fish, chicks…etc), 
physical methods (e.g. UV-light), 
physico-chemical methods {e.g. spectrophotometer and chromatography (Paper, Column, TLC, HPTLC, LC, HPLC, GLC – MS)} 
and immuno-enzyme methods, e.g. ELISA 
(Schweighardt et al., 1980-a & b and Abdelhamid, 1985, 1996 & 2000-b).

It may be affected by many factors including the mycotoxin it self,  level of contamination (chronic, sub acute, acute), time of exposure, route of application, presence of other mycotoxins, the organism exposes to a mycotoxin (genetic effect on the enzyme system), sex and age of the exposed organism (hormonal effect), and clinical status of the exposed organism (hepatic enzymes status) (Abdelhamid, 2000-b).

Toxin            LD50 
Aflatoxin-B1        0.5
Aflatoxin-B1         0.5 (mg/Kg body weight)
Aflatoxin-B1         0.08 (mg/Kg body weight)
Aspertoxin        6.6
Grusiofolvin        0.28
Ochratoxin-A        1.7
Ochratoxin-A         3.0 (mg/Kg body weight)
Ochratoxin-B         13.0 (mg/Kg body weight)
Patulin        18
Stemfon        1.2
Sterigmatocystin    0.24
Sterigmatocystin     137 (ppb in diet)
T-2 toxin         6.5 (mg/Kg body weight)

Prophylaxis is more better, easier, cheaper and realizable than treating (curing) mycotoxin.  Therefore, preventing fungal invasion is a must because there are no effective means for overcoming mycotoxins and their negative effects (Lee, et al., 1969; Wellford, et al., 1978; Abdehamid, 1993a; Abdelhamid and Mahmoud, 1996; Horvath, 1998;  Abdelhamid et al., 2002a; Heiler and Schatzmayr, 2003 and Shehata et al.,2003a & b).  However, it could be beneficial to alleviate these effects through one or more of the following steps:
separation, screening, washing, heating, roasting, microwave,

Aflatoxin AFB1 and Ochratoxin OA can be degraded by Enzymes like REDUCTASE and DEHYDROGENASE.
Tricothecenes T2  are degraded by EPOXIDASE
Zearalenone is degraded by LACTONASE

Acetobacter Xylinum            Activated Carbon        Alum pulvis        Bacillus Subtilis    
Benzoic acid            black peper        Dhaniya Crude Pulvis     citric acid
chitin isolated from crustacean shells     clove oil             Dextrose            Eclipta alba    
garlic powder             Honey            Tulsi crude pulvis         L acidophilus    
Hydrated Sodium alluminium Silicate    Nigella sativa        plumbago indica         S. boulardi    
Sodium bicarbonate                                      Sodium Hydroxide         Spirulina            T.Viride
Mannon Oligo Sacharides, 1,3/ 1,6 beta glucans Swertia chirraita        Thio Urea         Thymol,     
cinnamon containing  trans-cinnamic acid, trans-cinnamaldehyde, and ferulic acid  (phydroxy-3-methyl cinnamic  acid)

Physical means of adsorption of the toxins is achieved by the Activated Carbon and Hydrated Sodium Aluminum Silicate.
Chemical means of honey, garlic, ammonia, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Perborate, Calcium Peroxide; Potassium Bi sulfate and sugars (for reduction),  propionic Acid, Benzoic Acid  are also employed to act on contact.
Biological means (biotransformation) (by  fungi, yeasts and bacteria) are also employed to work at the gut level and hepatic level..
Trichoderma viride is a promising biocontrol agent for the pathogens, Saprolegnia sp. and Aspergillus ochraceus.  It can significantly reduce saprolegniasis severity.  It is safe and is also used for biological control purposes against pathogens. S boulardi by secreting H2O2 will oxidize and destroys the toxins.
Dietary means like vitamins (A, E) and minerals (Se) help in fighting the toxins and bring down the severity of the problem.
Addition of Thiourea and Organic Acids capable of destroying the fungi and impairing their ability to produce toxins; in TOXINBIND BIO is made with the sole purpose of  providing a synergetic effect and to provide consistent results.
Medicinal Herbs like Cinnamon, Tulsi, Thymol, Menthol are well known Fungicides and they are well documented to combat toxicosis.
Pepaver acts on the CNS of the flukes and makes them to loose their grip and fall into water medium unconscious. 
Coriander Seed, Methi inhibit the fungal metabolism. 
Activated Carbon can effectively alleviate lesions of AFB1  (Mohamed and Mokhbatly, 1997.
Nigella sativa significantly ameliorated the adverse effects of dietary AFB1
(Hussein et al. (2000) ) 
ALUMINUM SULPHATE  significantly reduces the amount of AFB1  absorbed from the digestive system following ingestion. ( Ellies et al. (2000) ) 
Feeding of 1,3/1,6 Beta glucan significantly raised the degree of resistsnce against A. hydrophila challenge and the non-specific immunity level. (Sahoo and Mukherjee, 2001a)
Mannon Oligo Sacharides binds the mycotoxins. 
Effects of Clay, Auto claved egg shells, Auto Claved shrimp shells and betaine  are significant in overcoming the aflatoxic symptoms (on growth, mortality, feed utilization, organs indices, carcass composition and blood enzymes). 
Anti Oxidants present in TOXIBIND BIO minimizes the resynthesis of mycotoxins at the Hepatic level.
TOXIBIND BIO contains Mould inhibitors too.
Enzymes produced by the Beneficial Microbes in TOXIBIND BIO degrade the toxins.
Thus stopping of secretion of toxins by pathogens, destroying of the pathogens, degrading the toxins, removal of mycotoxins from the contaminated feeding stuff besides the resulting changes in physical and nutritional properties of these feeding stuffs are well taken care in TOXIBIND BIO.

    • Withstands  Pelletisation Temperatures
    • Dominates And Controls All Pathogens Like Aspergillus, Fusarium, 
    • Claviceps  Spp., P. Citrinum,  P. Viridicatum, Salmonella, E Coli, Pasteurella. 
    • Produces Several Useful Enzymes To Improve F C R 
    • Transforms the Mycotoxins In The Desired Pathway.
    • Destroys and Degrades The Toxins In A Unique Efficient Manner.
    • Controls Pesticide and Other Chemical Toxicity.
    • Acidifies Gut
    • Consumes The Toxins And Converts The Same Into TDN
    • Improves Daily Body Weight Gain 
    • Reduces Mortality Rate 
    • Detoxifies Faster In A Complete  And Efficient Way

Preventive:     250 gms/ Ton Feed for every 0.5% Moisture in excess of 7% Moisture in the end product.
Curative:    500 gms/ Ton Feed for every 0.5% Moisture in excess of 7% Moisture in the end product for five days.

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